_LazyAsyncResult.cs source code in C# .NET

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/ Net / Net / 3.5.50727.3053 / DEVDIV / depot / DevDiv / releases / whidbey / netfxsp / ndp / fx / src / Net / System / Net / _LazyAsyncResult.cs / 5 / _LazyAsyncResult.cs

                            //------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
// 
//     Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
// 
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

namespace System.Net 
{ 
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Diagnostics; 
    using System.Collections;

    // LazyAsyncResult - Base class for all IAsyncResult classes
    // that want to take advantage of lazy allocated event handles 
    internal class LazyAsyncResult : IAsyncResult
    { 
        private const int c_HighBit = unchecked((int) 0x80000000); 
        private const int c_ForceAsyncCount = 50;
 
#if !NET_PERF
        // This is to avoid user mistakes when they queue another async op from a callback the completes [....].
        [ThreadStatic]
        private static ThreadContext t_ThreadContext; 

        private static ThreadContext CurrentThreadContext 
        { 
            get
            { 
                ThreadContext threadContext = t_ThreadContext;
                if (threadContext == null)
                {
                    threadContext = new ThreadContext(); 
                    t_ThreadContext = threadContext;
                } 
                return threadContext; 
            }
        } 

        private class ThreadContext
        {
            internal int m_NestedIOCount; 
        }
#endif 
 
#if DEBUG
        internal object _DebugAsyncChain;           // Optionally used to track chains of async calls. 
        private bool _ProtectState;                 // Used by ContextAwareResult to prevent some calls.
#endif

#if TRACK_LAR 
        internal static Hashtable _PendingResults = Hashtable.Synchronized(new Hashtable());
        internal static int _PendingIndex = 0; 
        internal int _MyIndex; 
#endif
 
        //
        // class members
        //
        private object m_AsyncObject;               // Caller's async object. 
        private object m_AsyncState;                // Caller's state object.
        private AsyncCallback m_AsyncCallback;      // Caller's callback method. 
        private object m_Result;                    // Final IO result to be returned byt the End*() method. 
        private int m_ErrorCode;                    // Win32 error code for Win32 IO async calls (that want to throw).
        private int m_IntCompleted;                 // Sign bit indicates synchronous completion if set. 
                                                    // Remaining bits count the number of InvokeCallbak() calls.

        private bool m_EndCalled;                   // true if the user called the End*() method.
        private bool m_UserEvent;                   // true if the event has been (or is about to be) handed to the user 

        private object m_Event;                     // lazy allocated event to be returned in the IAsyncResult for the client to wait on 
 

        internal LazyAsyncResult(object myObject, object myState, AsyncCallback myCallBack) { 
            m_AsyncObject = myObject;
            m_AsyncState = myState;
            m_AsyncCallback = myCallBack;
            m_Result = DBNull.Value; 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::.ctor()");
 
#if TRACK_LAR 
            _MyIndex = Interlocked.Increment(ref _PendingIndex);
            _PendingResults.Add(_MyIndex, this); 
#endif
        }

        // Allows creating a pre-completed result with less interlockeds.  Beware!  Constructor calls the callback. 
        // if a derived class ever uses this and overloads Cleanup, this may need to change
        internal LazyAsyncResult(object myObject, object myState, AsyncCallback myCallBack, object result) 
        { 
            GlobalLog.Assert(result != DBNull.Value, "LazyAsyncResult#{0}::.ctor()|Result can't be set to DBNull - it's a special internal value.", ValidationHelper.HashString(this));
            m_AsyncObject = myObject; 
            m_AsyncState = myState;
            m_AsyncCallback = myCallBack;
            m_Result =  result;
            m_IntCompleted = 1; 

            if (m_AsyncCallback != null) { 
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() invoking callback"); 
                m_AsyncCallback(this);
            } 
            else  {
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() no callback to invoke");
            }
 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::.ctor() (pre-completed)");
        } 
 
        // Interface method to return the original async object:
        internal object AsyncObject { 
            get {
                return m_AsyncObject;
            }
        } 

        // Interface method to return the caller's state object. 
        public object AsyncState { 
            get {
                return m_AsyncState; 
            }
        }

        protected AsyncCallback AsyncCallback 
        {
            get 
            { 
                return m_AsyncCallback;
            } 

            set
            {
                m_AsyncCallback = value; 
            }
        } 
 
        // Interface property to return a WaitHandle that can be waited on for I/O completion.
        // This property implements lazy event creation. 
        // the event object is only created when this property is accessed,
        // since we're internally only using callbacks, as long as the user is using
        // callbacks as well we will not create an event at all.
        // If this is used, the event cannot be disposed because it is under the control of the 
        // application.  Internal should use InternalWaitForCompletion instead - never AsyncWaitHandle.
        public WaitHandle AsyncWaitHandle 
        { 
            get
            { 
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_AsyncWaitHandle()");

#if DEBUG
                // Can't be called when state is protected. 
                if (_ProtectState)
                { 
                    throw new InvalidOperationException("get_AsyncWaitHandle called in protected state"); 
                }
#endif 

                ManualResetEvent asyncEvent;

                // Indicates that the user has seen the event; it can't be disposed. 
                m_UserEvent = true;
 
                // The user has access to this object.  Lock-in CompletedSynchronously. 
                if (m_IntCompleted == 0)
                { 
                    Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_IntCompleted, c_HighBit, 0);
                }

                // Because InternalWaitForCompletion() tries to dispose this event, it's 
                // possible for m_Event to become null immediately after being set, but only if
                // IsCompleted has become true.  Therefore it's possible for this property 
                // to give different (set) events to different callers when IsCompleted is true. 
                asyncEvent = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                while (asyncEvent == null) 
                {
                    LazilyCreateEvent(out asyncEvent);
                }
 
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_AsyncWaitHandle() m_Event:" + ValidationHelper.HashString(m_Event));
                return asyncEvent; 
            } 
        }
 
        // Returns true if this call created the event.
        // May return with a null handle.  That means it thought it got one, but it was disposed in the mean time.
        private bool LazilyCreateEvent(out ManualResetEvent waitHandle)
        { 
            // lazy allocation of the event:
            // if this property is never accessed this object is never created 
            waitHandle = new ManualResetEvent(false); 
            try
            { 
                if (Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_Event, waitHandle, null) == null)
                {
                    if (InternalPeekCompleted)
                    { 
                        waitHandle.Set();
                    } 
                    return true; 
                }
                else 
                {
                    waitHandle.Close();
                    waitHandle = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                    // There's a chance here that m_Event became null.  But the only way is if another thread completed 
                    // in InternalWaitForCompletion and disposed it.  If we're in InternalWaitForCompletion, we now know
                    // IsCompleted is set, so we can avoid the wait when waitHandle comes back null.  AsyncWaitHandle 
                    // will try again in this case. 
                    return false;
                } 
            }
            catch
            {
                // This should be very rare, but doing this will reduce the chance of deadlock. 
                m_Event = null;
                if (waitHandle != null) 
                    waitHandle.Close(); 
                throw;
            } 
        }

        // This allows ContextAwareResult to not let anyone trigger the CompletedSynchronously tripwire while the context is being captured.
        [Conditional("DEBUG")] 
        protected void DebugProtectState(bool protect)
        { 
#if DEBUG 
            _ProtectState = protect;
#endif 
        }

        // Interface property, returning synchronous completion status.
        public bool CompletedSynchronously { 
            get {
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_CompletedSynchronously()"); 
 
#if DEBUG
                // Can't be called when state is protected. 
                if (_ProtectState)
                {
                    throw new InvalidOperationException("get_CompletedSynchronously called in protected state");
                } 
#endif
 
                // If this returns greater than zero, it means it was incremented by InvokeCallback before anyone ever saw it. 
                int result = m_IntCompleted;
                if (result == 0) 
                {
                    result = Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_IntCompleted, c_HighBit, 0);
                }
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_CompletedSynchronously() returns: "+((result>0)?"true":"false")); 
                return result > 0;
            } 
        } 

        // Interface property, returning completion status. 
        public bool IsCompleted {
            get {
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_IsCompleted()");
 
#if DEBUG
                // Can't be called when state is protected. 
                if (_ProtectState) 
                {
                    throw new InvalidOperationException("get_IsCompleted called in protected state"); 
                }
#endif

                // Look at just the low bits to see if it's been incremented.  If it hasn't, set the high bit 
                // to show that it's been looked at.
                int result = m_IntCompleted; 
                if (result == 0) 
                {
                    result = Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_IntCompleted, c_HighBit, 0); 
                }
                return (result & ~c_HighBit) != 0;
            }
        } 

        // Use to see if something's completed without fixing CompletedSynchronously 
        internal bool InternalPeekCompleted 
        {
            get 
            {
                return (m_IntCompleted & ~c_HighBit) != 0;
            }
        } 

        // Internal property for setting the IO result. 
        internal object Result { 
            get {
                return m_Result == DBNull.Value ? null : m_Result; 
            }
            set {
                // Ideally this should never be called, since setting
                // the result object really makes sense when the IO completes. 
                //
                // But if the result was set here (as a preemptive error or for some other reason), 
                // then the "result" parameter passed to InvokeCallback() will be ignored. 
                //
 
                // It's an error to call after the result has been completed or with DBNull.
                GlobalLog.Assert(value != DBNull.Value, "LazyAsyncResult#{0}::set_Result()|Result can't be set to DBNull - it's a special internal value.", ValidationHelper.HashString(this));
                GlobalLog.Assert(!InternalPeekCompleted, "LazyAsyncResult#{0}::set_Result()|Called on completed result.", ValidationHelper.HashString(this));
                m_Result = value; 
            }
        } 
 
        internal bool EndCalled {
            get { 
                return m_EndCalled;
            }
            set {
                m_EndCalled = value; 
            }
        } 
 
        // Internal property for setting the Win32 IO async error code.
        internal int ErrorCode { 
            get {
                return m_ErrorCode;
            }
            set { 
                m_ErrorCode = value;
            } 
        } 

        // A method for completing the IO with a result 
        // and invoking the user's callback.
        // Used by derived classes to pass context into an overridden Complete().  Useful
        // for determining the 'winning' thread in case several may simultaneously call
        // the equivalent of InvokeCallback(). 
        protected void ProtectedInvokeCallback(object result, IntPtr userToken)
        { 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::ProtectedInvokeCallback() result = " + 
                            (result is Exception? ((Exception)result).Message:  result == null? "": result.ToString()) +
                            ", userToken:" + userToken.ToString()); 

            // Critical to disallow DBNull here - it could result in a stuck spinlock in WaitForCompletion.
            if (result == DBNull.Value)
            { 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("result");
            } 
 
#if DEBUG
            // Always safe to ask for the state now. 
            _ProtectState = false;
#endif

            if ((m_IntCompleted & ~c_HighBit) == 0 && (Interlocked.Increment(ref m_IntCompleted) & ~c_HighBit) == 1) 
            {
                // DBNull.Value is used to guarantee that the first caller wins, 
                // even if the result was set to null. 
                if (m_Result == DBNull.Value)
                    m_Result = result; 

                // Does this need a memory barrier to be sure this thread gets the m_Event if it's set?  I don't think so
                // because the Interlockeds on m_IntCompleted/m_Event should serve as the barrier.
                ManualResetEvent asyncEvent = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event; 
                if (asyncEvent != null)
                { 
                    try { 
                        asyncEvent.Set();
                    } 
                    catch (ObjectDisposedException) {
                        // Simply ---- this exception - There is apparently a rare race condition
                        // where the event is disposed before the completion method is called.
                    } 
                }
 
                Complete(userToken); 
            }
        } 

        // A method for completing the IO with a result
        // and invoking the user's callback.
        internal void InvokeCallback(object result) 
        {
            ProtectedInvokeCallback(result, IntPtr.Zero); 
        } 

        // A method for completing the IO without a result 
        // and invoking the user's callback.
        internal void InvokeCallback()
        {
            ProtectedInvokeCallback(null, IntPtr.Zero); 
        }
 
        // 
        //  MUST NOT BE CALLED DIRECTLY
        //  A protected method that does callback job and it is guaranteed to be called exactly once. 
        //  A derived overriding method must call the base class somewhere or the completion is lost.
        //
        protected virtual void Complete(IntPtr userToken)
        { 
#if !NET_PERF
            bool offloaded = false; 
            ThreadContext threadContext = CurrentThreadContext; 
            try {
                ++threadContext.m_NestedIOCount; 
#else
            try
            {
#endif 
                if (m_AsyncCallback != null) {
                    GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() invoking callback"); 
 
#if !NET_PERF
                    if (threadContext.m_NestedIOCount >= c_ForceAsyncCount) 
                    {
                        GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult::Complete *** OFFLOADED the user callback ***");
                        ThreadPool.QueueUserWorkItem(new WaitCallback(WorkerThreadComplete));
                        offloaded = true; 
                    }
                    else 
#endif 
                    {
                        m_AsyncCallback(this); 
                    }
                }
                else  {
                    GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() no callback to invoke"); 
                }
            } 
            finally { 
#if !NET_PERF
                --threadContext.m_NestedIOCount; 

                // Never call this method unless interlocked m_IntCompleted check has succeeded (like in this case)
                if (!offloaded)
#endif 
                {
                    Cleanup(); 
                } 
            }
        } 



#if !NET_PERF 
        // Only called in the above method
        void WorkerThreadComplete(object state) 
        { 
            try
            { 
                m_AsyncCallback(this);
            }
            finally
            { 
                Cleanup();
            } 
        } 
#endif
 
        // Custom instance cleanup method.
        // Derived types override this method to release unmanaged resources associated with an IO request.
        protected virtual void Cleanup()
        { 
#if TRACK_LAR
            _PendingResults.Remove(_MyIndex); 
#endif 
        }
 
        internal object InternalWaitForCompletion()
        {
            return WaitForCompletion(true);
        } 

        /* 
        internal object InternalWaitForCompletionNoSideEffects() 
        {
            return WaitForCompletion(false); 
        }
        */

        private object WaitForCompletion(bool snap) { 
            ManualResetEvent waitHandle = null;
            bool createdByMe = false; 
            bool complete = snap ? IsCompleted : InternalPeekCompleted; 

            if (!complete) 
            {
                // Not done yet, so wait:
                waitHandle = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                if (waitHandle == null) 
                {
                    createdByMe = LazilyCreateEvent(out waitHandle); 
                } 
            }
 
            if (waitHandle != null)
            {
                try
                { 
                    GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::InternalWaitForCompletion() Waiting for completion m_Event#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(waitHandle));
                    waitHandle.WaitOne(Timeout.Infinite, false); 
                } 
                catch (ObjectDisposedException)
                { 
                    // This can occur if this method is called from two different threads.
                    // This possibility is the trade-off for not locking.
                }
                finally { 
                    // We also want to dispose the event although we can't unless we did wait on it here.
                    if (createdByMe && !m_UserEvent) 
                    { 
                        // Does m_UserEvent need to be volatile (or m_Event set via Interlocked) in order
                        // to avoid giving a user a disposed event? 
                        ManualResetEvent oldEvent = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                        m_Event = null;
                        if (!m_UserEvent)
                        { 
                            oldEvent.Close();
                        } 
                    } 
                }
            } 

            // A race condition exists because InvokeCallback sets m_IntCompleted before m_Result (so that m_Result
            // can benefit from the synchronization of m_IntCompleted).  That means you can get here before m_Result got
            // set (although rarely - once every eight hours of stress).  Handle that case with a spin-lock. 
            while (m_Result == DBNull.Value)
                Thread.SpinWait(1); 
 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::InternalWaitForCompletion() done: " +
                            (m_Result is Exception? ((Exception)m_Result).Message:  m_Result == null? "": m_Result.ToString())); 

            return m_Result;
        }
 
        // A general interface that is called to release unmanaged resources associated with the class.
        // It completes the result but doesn't do any of the notifications. 
        internal void InternalCleanup() 
        {
            if ((m_IntCompleted & ~c_HighBit) == 0 && (Interlocked.Increment(ref m_IntCompleted) & ~c_HighBit) == 1) 
            {
                // Set no result so that just in case there are waiters, they don't hang in the spin lock.
                m_Result = null;
                Cleanup(); 
            }
        } 
    } 
}

// File provided for Reference Use Only by Microsoft Corporation (c) 2007.
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
// 
//     Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
// 
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

namespace System.Net 
{ 
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Diagnostics; 
    using System.Collections;

    // LazyAsyncResult - Base class for all IAsyncResult classes
    // that want to take advantage of lazy allocated event handles 
    internal class LazyAsyncResult : IAsyncResult
    { 
        private const int c_HighBit = unchecked((int) 0x80000000); 
        private const int c_ForceAsyncCount = 50;
 
#if !NET_PERF
        // This is to avoid user mistakes when they queue another async op from a callback the completes [....].
        [ThreadStatic]
        private static ThreadContext t_ThreadContext; 

        private static ThreadContext CurrentThreadContext 
        { 
            get
            { 
                ThreadContext threadContext = t_ThreadContext;
                if (threadContext == null)
                {
                    threadContext = new ThreadContext(); 
                    t_ThreadContext = threadContext;
                } 
                return threadContext; 
            }
        } 

        private class ThreadContext
        {
            internal int m_NestedIOCount; 
        }
#endif 
 
#if DEBUG
        internal object _DebugAsyncChain;           // Optionally used to track chains of async calls. 
        private bool _ProtectState;                 // Used by ContextAwareResult to prevent some calls.
#endif

#if TRACK_LAR 
        internal static Hashtable _PendingResults = Hashtable.Synchronized(new Hashtable());
        internal static int _PendingIndex = 0; 
        internal int _MyIndex; 
#endif
 
        //
        // class members
        //
        private object m_AsyncObject;               // Caller's async object. 
        private object m_AsyncState;                // Caller's state object.
        private AsyncCallback m_AsyncCallback;      // Caller's callback method. 
        private object m_Result;                    // Final IO result to be returned byt the End*() method. 
        private int m_ErrorCode;                    // Win32 error code for Win32 IO async calls (that want to throw).
        private int m_IntCompleted;                 // Sign bit indicates synchronous completion if set. 
                                                    // Remaining bits count the number of InvokeCallbak() calls.

        private bool m_EndCalled;                   // true if the user called the End*() method.
        private bool m_UserEvent;                   // true if the event has been (or is about to be) handed to the user 

        private object m_Event;                     // lazy allocated event to be returned in the IAsyncResult for the client to wait on 
 

        internal LazyAsyncResult(object myObject, object myState, AsyncCallback myCallBack) { 
            m_AsyncObject = myObject;
            m_AsyncState = myState;
            m_AsyncCallback = myCallBack;
            m_Result = DBNull.Value; 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::.ctor()");
 
#if TRACK_LAR 
            _MyIndex = Interlocked.Increment(ref _PendingIndex);
            _PendingResults.Add(_MyIndex, this); 
#endif
        }

        // Allows creating a pre-completed result with less interlockeds.  Beware!  Constructor calls the callback. 
        // if a derived class ever uses this and overloads Cleanup, this may need to change
        internal LazyAsyncResult(object myObject, object myState, AsyncCallback myCallBack, object result) 
        { 
            GlobalLog.Assert(result != DBNull.Value, "LazyAsyncResult#{0}::.ctor()|Result can't be set to DBNull - it's a special internal value.", ValidationHelper.HashString(this));
            m_AsyncObject = myObject; 
            m_AsyncState = myState;
            m_AsyncCallback = myCallBack;
            m_Result =  result;
            m_IntCompleted = 1; 

            if (m_AsyncCallback != null) { 
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() invoking callback"); 
                m_AsyncCallback(this);
            } 
            else  {
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() no callback to invoke");
            }
 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::.ctor() (pre-completed)");
        } 
 
        // Interface method to return the original async object:
        internal object AsyncObject { 
            get {
                return m_AsyncObject;
            }
        } 

        // Interface method to return the caller's state object. 
        public object AsyncState { 
            get {
                return m_AsyncState; 
            }
        }

        protected AsyncCallback AsyncCallback 
        {
            get 
            { 
                return m_AsyncCallback;
            } 

            set
            {
                m_AsyncCallback = value; 
            }
        } 
 
        // Interface property to return a WaitHandle that can be waited on for I/O completion.
        // This property implements lazy event creation. 
        // the event object is only created when this property is accessed,
        // since we're internally only using callbacks, as long as the user is using
        // callbacks as well we will not create an event at all.
        // If this is used, the event cannot be disposed because it is under the control of the 
        // application.  Internal should use InternalWaitForCompletion instead - never AsyncWaitHandle.
        public WaitHandle AsyncWaitHandle 
        { 
            get
            { 
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_AsyncWaitHandle()");

#if DEBUG
                // Can't be called when state is protected. 
                if (_ProtectState)
                { 
                    throw new InvalidOperationException("get_AsyncWaitHandle called in protected state"); 
                }
#endif 

                ManualResetEvent asyncEvent;

                // Indicates that the user has seen the event; it can't be disposed. 
                m_UserEvent = true;
 
                // The user has access to this object.  Lock-in CompletedSynchronously. 
                if (m_IntCompleted == 0)
                { 
                    Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_IntCompleted, c_HighBit, 0);
                }

                // Because InternalWaitForCompletion() tries to dispose this event, it's 
                // possible for m_Event to become null immediately after being set, but only if
                // IsCompleted has become true.  Therefore it's possible for this property 
                // to give different (set) events to different callers when IsCompleted is true. 
                asyncEvent = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                while (asyncEvent == null) 
                {
                    LazilyCreateEvent(out asyncEvent);
                }
 
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_AsyncWaitHandle() m_Event:" + ValidationHelper.HashString(m_Event));
                return asyncEvent; 
            } 
        }
 
        // Returns true if this call created the event.
        // May return with a null handle.  That means it thought it got one, but it was disposed in the mean time.
        private bool LazilyCreateEvent(out ManualResetEvent waitHandle)
        { 
            // lazy allocation of the event:
            // if this property is never accessed this object is never created 
            waitHandle = new ManualResetEvent(false); 
            try
            { 
                if (Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_Event, waitHandle, null) == null)
                {
                    if (InternalPeekCompleted)
                    { 
                        waitHandle.Set();
                    } 
                    return true; 
                }
                else 
                {
                    waitHandle.Close();
                    waitHandle = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                    // There's a chance here that m_Event became null.  But the only way is if another thread completed 
                    // in InternalWaitForCompletion and disposed it.  If we're in InternalWaitForCompletion, we now know
                    // IsCompleted is set, so we can avoid the wait when waitHandle comes back null.  AsyncWaitHandle 
                    // will try again in this case. 
                    return false;
                } 
            }
            catch
            {
                // This should be very rare, but doing this will reduce the chance of deadlock. 
                m_Event = null;
                if (waitHandle != null) 
                    waitHandle.Close(); 
                throw;
            } 
        }

        // This allows ContextAwareResult to not let anyone trigger the CompletedSynchronously tripwire while the context is being captured.
        [Conditional("DEBUG")] 
        protected void DebugProtectState(bool protect)
        { 
#if DEBUG 
            _ProtectState = protect;
#endif 
        }

        // Interface property, returning synchronous completion status.
        public bool CompletedSynchronously { 
            get {
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_CompletedSynchronously()"); 
 
#if DEBUG
                // Can't be called when state is protected. 
                if (_ProtectState)
                {
                    throw new InvalidOperationException("get_CompletedSynchronously called in protected state");
                } 
#endif
 
                // If this returns greater than zero, it means it was incremented by InvokeCallback before anyone ever saw it. 
                int result = m_IntCompleted;
                if (result == 0) 
                {
                    result = Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_IntCompleted, c_HighBit, 0);
                }
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_CompletedSynchronously() returns: "+((result>0)?"true":"false")); 
                return result > 0;
            } 
        } 

        // Interface property, returning completion status. 
        public bool IsCompleted {
            get {
                GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::get_IsCompleted()");
 
#if DEBUG
                // Can't be called when state is protected. 
                if (_ProtectState) 
                {
                    throw new InvalidOperationException("get_IsCompleted called in protected state"); 
                }
#endif

                // Look at just the low bits to see if it's been incremented.  If it hasn't, set the high bit 
                // to show that it's been looked at.
                int result = m_IntCompleted; 
                if (result == 0) 
                {
                    result = Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref m_IntCompleted, c_HighBit, 0); 
                }
                return (result & ~c_HighBit) != 0;
            }
        } 

        // Use to see if something's completed without fixing CompletedSynchronously 
        internal bool InternalPeekCompleted 
        {
            get 
            {
                return (m_IntCompleted & ~c_HighBit) != 0;
            }
        } 

        // Internal property for setting the IO result. 
        internal object Result { 
            get {
                return m_Result == DBNull.Value ? null : m_Result; 
            }
            set {
                // Ideally this should never be called, since setting
                // the result object really makes sense when the IO completes. 
                //
                // But if the result was set here (as a preemptive error or for some other reason), 
                // then the "result" parameter passed to InvokeCallback() will be ignored. 
                //
 
                // It's an error to call after the result has been completed or with DBNull.
                GlobalLog.Assert(value != DBNull.Value, "LazyAsyncResult#{0}::set_Result()|Result can't be set to DBNull - it's a special internal value.", ValidationHelper.HashString(this));
                GlobalLog.Assert(!InternalPeekCompleted, "LazyAsyncResult#{0}::set_Result()|Called on completed result.", ValidationHelper.HashString(this));
                m_Result = value; 
            }
        } 
 
        internal bool EndCalled {
            get { 
                return m_EndCalled;
            }
            set {
                m_EndCalled = value; 
            }
        } 
 
        // Internal property for setting the Win32 IO async error code.
        internal int ErrorCode { 
            get {
                return m_ErrorCode;
            }
            set { 
                m_ErrorCode = value;
            } 
        } 

        // A method for completing the IO with a result 
        // and invoking the user's callback.
        // Used by derived classes to pass context into an overridden Complete().  Useful
        // for determining the 'winning' thread in case several may simultaneously call
        // the equivalent of InvokeCallback(). 
        protected void ProtectedInvokeCallback(object result, IntPtr userToken)
        { 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::ProtectedInvokeCallback() result = " + 
                            (result is Exception? ((Exception)result).Message:  result == null? "": result.ToString()) +
                            ", userToken:" + userToken.ToString()); 

            // Critical to disallow DBNull here - it could result in a stuck spinlock in WaitForCompletion.
            if (result == DBNull.Value)
            { 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("result");
            } 
 
#if DEBUG
            // Always safe to ask for the state now. 
            _ProtectState = false;
#endif

            if ((m_IntCompleted & ~c_HighBit) == 0 && (Interlocked.Increment(ref m_IntCompleted) & ~c_HighBit) == 1) 
            {
                // DBNull.Value is used to guarantee that the first caller wins, 
                // even if the result was set to null. 
                if (m_Result == DBNull.Value)
                    m_Result = result; 

                // Does this need a memory barrier to be sure this thread gets the m_Event if it's set?  I don't think so
                // because the Interlockeds on m_IntCompleted/m_Event should serve as the barrier.
                ManualResetEvent asyncEvent = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event; 
                if (asyncEvent != null)
                { 
                    try { 
                        asyncEvent.Set();
                    } 
                    catch (ObjectDisposedException) {
                        // Simply ---- this exception - There is apparently a rare race condition
                        // where the event is disposed before the completion method is called.
                    } 
                }
 
                Complete(userToken); 
            }
        } 

        // A method for completing the IO with a result
        // and invoking the user's callback.
        internal void InvokeCallback(object result) 
        {
            ProtectedInvokeCallback(result, IntPtr.Zero); 
        } 

        // A method for completing the IO without a result 
        // and invoking the user's callback.
        internal void InvokeCallback()
        {
            ProtectedInvokeCallback(null, IntPtr.Zero); 
        }
 
        // 
        //  MUST NOT BE CALLED DIRECTLY
        //  A protected method that does callback job and it is guaranteed to be called exactly once. 
        //  A derived overriding method must call the base class somewhere or the completion is lost.
        //
        protected virtual void Complete(IntPtr userToken)
        { 
#if !NET_PERF
            bool offloaded = false; 
            ThreadContext threadContext = CurrentThreadContext; 
            try {
                ++threadContext.m_NestedIOCount; 
#else
            try
            {
#endif 
                if (m_AsyncCallback != null) {
                    GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() invoking callback"); 
 
#if !NET_PERF
                    if (threadContext.m_NestedIOCount >= c_ForceAsyncCount) 
                    {
                        GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult::Complete *** OFFLOADED the user callback ***");
                        ThreadPool.QueueUserWorkItem(new WaitCallback(WorkerThreadComplete));
                        offloaded = true; 
                    }
                    else 
#endif 
                    {
                        m_AsyncCallback(this); 
                    }
                }
                else  {
                    GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::Complete() no callback to invoke"); 
                }
            } 
            finally { 
#if !NET_PERF
                --threadContext.m_NestedIOCount; 

                // Never call this method unless interlocked m_IntCompleted check has succeeded (like in this case)
                if (!offloaded)
#endif 
                {
                    Cleanup(); 
                } 
            }
        } 



#if !NET_PERF 
        // Only called in the above method
        void WorkerThreadComplete(object state) 
        { 
            try
            { 
                m_AsyncCallback(this);
            }
            finally
            { 
                Cleanup();
            } 
        } 
#endif
 
        // Custom instance cleanup method.
        // Derived types override this method to release unmanaged resources associated with an IO request.
        protected virtual void Cleanup()
        { 
#if TRACK_LAR
            _PendingResults.Remove(_MyIndex); 
#endif 
        }
 
        internal object InternalWaitForCompletion()
        {
            return WaitForCompletion(true);
        } 

        /* 
        internal object InternalWaitForCompletionNoSideEffects() 
        {
            return WaitForCompletion(false); 
        }
        */

        private object WaitForCompletion(bool snap) { 
            ManualResetEvent waitHandle = null;
            bool createdByMe = false; 
            bool complete = snap ? IsCompleted : InternalPeekCompleted; 

            if (!complete) 
            {
                // Not done yet, so wait:
                waitHandle = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                if (waitHandle == null) 
                {
                    createdByMe = LazilyCreateEvent(out waitHandle); 
                } 
            }
 
            if (waitHandle != null)
            {
                try
                { 
                    GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::InternalWaitForCompletion() Waiting for completion m_Event#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(waitHandle));
                    waitHandle.WaitOne(Timeout.Infinite, false); 
                } 
                catch (ObjectDisposedException)
                { 
                    // This can occur if this method is called from two different threads.
                    // This possibility is the trade-off for not locking.
                }
                finally { 
                    // We also want to dispose the event although we can't unless we did wait on it here.
                    if (createdByMe && !m_UserEvent) 
                    { 
                        // Does m_UserEvent need to be volatile (or m_Event set via Interlocked) in order
                        // to avoid giving a user a disposed event? 
                        ManualResetEvent oldEvent = (ManualResetEvent) m_Event;
                        m_Event = null;
                        if (!m_UserEvent)
                        { 
                            oldEvent.Close();
                        } 
                    } 
                }
            } 

            // A race condition exists because InvokeCallback sets m_IntCompleted before m_Result (so that m_Result
            // can benefit from the synchronization of m_IntCompleted).  That means you can get here before m_Result got
            // set (although rarely - once every eight hours of stress).  Handle that case with a spin-lock. 
            while (m_Result == DBNull.Value)
                Thread.SpinWait(1); 
 
            GlobalLog.Print("LazyAsyncResult#" + ValidationHelper.HashString(this) + "::InternalWaitForCompletion() done: " +
                            (m_Result is Exception? ((Exception)m_Result).Message:  m_Result == null? "": m_Result.ToString())); 

            return m_Result;
        }
 
        // A general interface that is called to release unmanaged resources associated with the class.
        // It completes the result but doesn't do any of the notifications. 
        internal void InternalCleanup() 
        {
            if ((m_IntCompleted & ~c_HighBit) == 0 && (Interlocked.Increment(ref m_IntCompleted) & ~c_HighBit) == 1) 
            {
                // Set no result so that just in case there are waiters, they don't hang in the spin lock.
                m_Result = null;
                Cleanup(); 
            }
        } 
    } 
}

// File provided for Reference Use Only by Microsoft Corporation (c) 2007.
                        

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