Delegate.cs source code in C# .NET

Source code for the .NET framework in C#

                        

Code:

/ Dotnetfx_Win7_3.5.1 / Dotnetfx_Win7_3.5.1 / 3.5.1 / DEVDIV / depot / DevDiv / releases / whidbey / NetFXspW7 / ndp / clr / src / BCL / System / Delegate.cs / 2 / Delegate.cs

                            // ==++== 
//
//   Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
//
// ==--== 
namespace System {
 
    using System; 
    using System.Reflection;
    using System.Threading; 
    using System.Runtime.Serialization;
    using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
    using System.Runtime.CompilerServices;
    [Serializable()] 
    [ClassInterface(ClassInterfaceType.AutoDual)]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)] 
    public abstract class Delegate : ICloneable, ISerializable 
    {
        // _target is the object we will invoke on 
        internal Object _target;

        // MethodBase, either cached after first request or assigned from a DynamicMethod
        internal MethodBase _methodBase; 

        // _methodPtr is a pointer to the method we will invoke 
        // It could be a small thunk if this is a static or UM call 
        internal IntPtr _methodPtr;
 
        // In the case of a static method passed to a delegate, this field stores
        // whatever _methodPtr would have stored: and _methodPtr points to a
        // small thunk which removes the "this" pointer before going on
        // to _methodPtrAux. 
        internal IntPtr _methodPtrAux;
 
        // This constructor is called from the class generated by the 
        //  compiler generated code
        protected Delegate(Object target,String method) 
        {
            if (target == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target");
 
            if (method == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
 
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create closed
            // instance delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to 
            // such and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make
            // the choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards
            // compatibility. The name matching was case sensitive and we
            // preserve that as well. 
            if (!BindToMethodName(target, Type.GetTypeHandle(target), method,
                                  DelegateBindingFlags.InstanceMethodOnly | 
                                  DelegateBindingFlags.ClosedDelegateOnly)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
        } 

        // This constructor is called from a class to generate a
        // delegate based upon a static method name and the Type object
        // for the class defining the method. 
        protected unsafe Delegate(Type target,String method)
        { 
            if (target == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target");
 
            if (!(target is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "target");

            if (target.IsGenericType && target.ContainsGenericParameters) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_UnboundGenParam"), "target");
 
            if (method == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method");
 
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create open
            // static delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to such
            // and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make the
            // choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards compatibility. 
            // The name matching was case insensitive (no idea why this is
            // different from the constructor above) and we preserve that as 
            // well. 
            BindToMethodName(null, target.TypeHandle, method,
                             DelegateBindingFlags.StaticMethodOnly | 
                             DelegateBindingFlags.OpenDelegateOnly |
                             DelegateBindingFlags.CaselessMatching);
        }
 
        // Protect the default constructor so you can't build a delegate
        private Delegate() 
        { 
        }
 
        public Object DynamicInvoke(params Object[] args)
        {
            return DynamicInvokeImpl(args);
        } 

        protected virtual object DynamicInvokeImpl(object[] args) 
        { 
            RuntimeMethodHandle method = new RuntimeMethodHandle(GetInvokeMethod());
            RuntimeTypeHandle delegateType = Type.GetTypeHandle(this); 
            RuntimeMethodInfo invoke = (RuntimeMethodInfo)RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(delegateType, method);
            return invoke.Invoke(this, BindingFlags.Default, null, args, null, true);
        }
 

        public override bool Equals(Object obj) 
        { 
            if (obj == null || !InternalEqualTypes(this, obj))
                return false; 

            Delegate d = (Delegate) obj;

            // do an optimistic check first. This is hopefully cheap enough to be worth 
            if (_target == d._target && _methodPtr == d._methodPtr && _methodPtrAux == d._methodPtrAux)
                return true; 
 
            // even though the fields were not all equals the delegates may still match
            // When target carries the delegate itself the 2 targets (delegates) may be different instances 
            // but the delegates are logically the same
            // It may also happen that the method pointer was not jitted when creating one delegate and jitted in the other
            // if that's the case the delegates may still be equals but we need to make a more complicated check
 
            if (_methodPtrAux.IsNull())
            { 
                if (!d._methodPtrAux.IsNull()) 
                    return false; // different delegate kind
                // they are both closed over the first arg 
                if (_target != d._target)
                    return false;
                // fall through method handle check
            } 
            else
            { 
                if (d._methodPtrAux.IsNull()) 
                    return false; // different delegate kind
 
                // Ignore the target as it will be the delegate instance, though it may be a different one
                /*
                if (_methodPtr != d._methodPtr)
                    return false; 
                    */
 
                if (_methodPtrAux == d._methodPtrAux) 
                    return true;
                // fall through method handle check 
            }

            // method ptrs don't match, go down long path
            // 
            if (_methodBase == null || d._methodBase == null)
                return FindMethodHandle().Equals(d.FindMethodHandle()); 
            else 
                return _methodBase.Equals(d._methodBase);
 
        }

        public override int GetHashCode()
        { 
            //
            // this is not right in the face of a method being jitted in one delegate and not in another 
            // in that case the delegate is the same and Equals will return true but GetHashCode returns a 
            // different hashcode which is not true.
            /* 
            if (_methodPtrAux.IsNull())
                return unchecked((int)((long)this._methodPtr));
            else
                return unchecked((int)((long)this._methodPtrAux)); 
            */
            return GetType().GetHashCode(); 
        } 

        public static Delegate Combine(Delegate a, Delegate b) 
        {
            if ((Object)a == null) // cast to object for a more efficient test
                return b;
 
            return  a.CombineImpl(b);
        } 
 
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
        public static Delegate Combine(params Delegate[] delegates) 
        {
            if (delegates == null || delegates.Length == 0)
                return null;
 
            Delegate d = delegates[0];
            for (int i = 1; i < delegates.Length; i++) 
                d = Combine(d,delegates[i]); 

            return d; 
        }

        public virtual Delegate[] GetInvocationList()
        { 
            Delegate[] d = new Delegate[1];
            d[0] = this; 
            return d; 
        }
 
        // This routine will return the method
        public MethodInfo Method
        {
            get 
            {
                return GetMethodImpl(); 
            } 
        }
 
        protected virtual MethodInfo GetMethodImpl()
        {
            if (_methodBase == null)
            { 
                RuntimeMethodHandle method = FindMethodHandle();
                RuntimeTypeHandle declaringType = method.GetDeclaringType(); 
                // need a proper declaring type instance method on a generic type 
                if (declaringType.IsGenericTypeDefinition() || declaringType.HasInstantiation())
                { 
                    bool isStatic = (method.GetAttributes() & MethodAttributes.Static) != (MethodAttributes)0;
                    if (!isStatic)
                    {
                        if (_methodPtrAux == (IntPtr)0) 
                        {
                            // The target may be of a derived type that doesn't have visibility onto the 
                            // target method. We don't want to call RuntimeType.GetMethodBase below with that 
                            // or reflection can end up generating a MethodInfo where the ReflectedType cannot
                            // see the MethodInfo itself and that breaks an important invariant. But the 
                            // target type could include important generic type information we need in order
                            // to work out what the exact instantiation of the method's declaring type is. So
                            // we'll walk up the inheritance chain (which will yield exactly instantiated
                            // types at each step) until we find the declaring type. Since the declaring type 
                            // we get from the method is probably shared and those in the hierarchy we're
                            // walking won't be we compare using the generic type definition forms instead. 
                            Type currentType = _target.GetType(); 
                            Type targetType = declaringType.GetRuntimeType().GetGenericTypeDefinition();
                            while (true) 
                            {
                                if (currentType.IsGenericType &&
                                    currentType.GetGenericTypeDefinition() == targetType)
                                    break; 
                                currentType = currentType.BaseType;
                            } 
                            declaringType = currentType.TypeHandle; 
                        }
                        else 
                        {
                            // it's an open one, need to fetch the first arg of the instantiation
                            MethodInfo invoke = this.GetType().GetMethod("Invoke");
                            declaringType = invoke.GetParameters()[0].ParameterType.TypeHandle; 
                        }
                    } 
                } 
                _methodBase = (MethodInfo)RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(declaringType, method);
            } 
            return (MethodInfo)_methodBase;
        }

        public Object Target 
        {
            get 
            { 
                return GetTarget();
            } 
        }


        public static Delegate Remove(Delegate source, Delegate value) 
        {
            if (source == null) 
                return null; 

            if (value == null) 
                return source;

            if (!InternalEqualTypes(source, value))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTypeMis")); 

            return source.RemoveImpl(value); 
        } 

        public static Delegate RemoveAll(Delegate source, Delegate value) 
        {
            Delegate newDelegate = null;

            do 
            {
                newDelegate = source; 
                source = Remove(source, value); 
            }
            while (newDelegate != source); 

            return newDelegate;
        }
 
        protected virtual Delegate CombineImpl(Delegate d)
        { 
            throw new MulticastNotSupportedException(Environment.GetResourceString("Multicast_Combine")); 
        }
 
        protected virtual Delegate RemoveImpl(Delegate d)
        {
            return (d.Equals(this)) ? null : this;
        } 

 
        public virtual Object Clone() 
        {
            return MemberwiseClone(); 
        }

        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, String method) 
        {
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, false, true); 
        } 

        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, String method, bool ignoreCase)
        {
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, ignoreCase, true);
        } 

        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, String method, bool ignoreCase, bool throwOnBindFailure) 
        {
            if (type == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type");
            if (target == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target");
            if (method == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
            Type c = type.BaseType;
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type");

            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create closed 
            // instance delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to such
            // and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make the 
            // choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards compatibility. 
            // We never generate a closed over null delegate and this is
            // actually enforced via the check on target above, but we pass 
            // NeverCloseOverNull anyway just for clarity.
            if (!d.BindToMethodName(target, Type.GetTypeHandle(target), method,
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.InstanceMethodOnly |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.ClosedDelegateOnly | 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.NeverCloseOverNull |
                                    (ignoreCase ? DelegateBindingFlags.CaselessMatching : 0))) 
            { 
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth")); 
                d = null;
            }

            return d; 
        }
 
        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Type target, String method)
        { 
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, false, true);
        }

        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Type target, String method, bool ignoreCase)
        { 
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, ignoreCase, true); 
        }
 
        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Type target, String method, bool ignoreCase, bool throwOnBindFailure)
        {
            if (type == null) 
                    throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (!(type is RuntimeType)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type"); 
            if (target == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target"); 
            if (!(target is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "target");
            if (target.IsGenericType && target.ContainsGenericParameters)
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_UnboundGenParam"), "target"); 
            if (method == null)
                    throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type"); 

            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create open
            // static delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to such 
            // and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make the
            // choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards compatibility. 
            if (!d.BindToMethodName(null, target.TypeHandle, method, 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.StaticMethodOnly |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.OpenDelegateOnly | 
                                    (ignoreCase ? DelegateBindingFlags.CaselessMatching : 0)))
            {
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth")); 
                d = null;
            } 
 
            return d;
        } 

        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, MethodInfo method)
        { 
            return CreateDelegate(type, method, true);
        } 
 
        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, MethodInfo method, bool throwOnBindFailure) 
        {
            // Validate the parameters.
            if (type == null)
                    throw new ArgumentNullException("type"); 
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type"); 
            if (method == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method");
            if (!(method is RuntimeMethodInfo)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeMethodInfo"), "method");
            Type c = type.BaseType;
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type"); 

            // Initialize the delegate... 
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle); 
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create closed
            // instance delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodInfo to 
            // open delegates only for backwards compatibility. But we'll allow
            // relaxed signature checking and open static delegates because
            // there's no ambiguity there (the caller would have to explicitly
            // pass us a static method or a method with a non-exact signature 
            // and the only change in behavior from v1.1 there is that we won't
            // fail the call). 
            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(null, method.MethodHandle, method.DeclaringType.TypeHandle, 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.OpenDelegateOnly |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature)) 
            {
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
                d = null; 
            }
            return d; 
        } 

        // V2 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object firstArgument, MethodInfo method)
        {
            return CreateDelegate(type, firstArgument, method, true);
        } 

        // V2 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object firstArgument, MethodInfo method, bool throwOnBindFailure) 
        {
            // Validate the parameters. 
            if (type == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type"); 
            if (method == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
            if (!(method is RuntimeMethodInfo)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeMethodInfo"), "method");
            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type");

            // Initialize the method... 
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This API is new in Whidbey and allows the full range of delegate 
            // flexability (open or closed delegates binding to static or 
            // instance methods with relaxed signature checking. The delegate
            // can also be closed over null. There's no ambiguity with all these 
            // options since the caller is providing us a specific MethodInfo.
            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(firstArgument, method.MethodHandle, method.DeclaringType.TypeHandle,
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature))
            { 
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth")); 
                d = null; 
            }
            return d; 
        }

        public static bool operator ==(Delegate d1, Delegate d2)
        { 
            if ((Object)d1 == null)
                return (Object)d2 == null; 
 
            return d1.Equals(d2);
        } 

        public static bool operator != (Delegate d1, Delegate d2)
        {
            if ((Object)d1 == null) 
                return (Object)d2 != null;
 
            return !d1.Equals(d2); 
        }
 
        //
        // Implementation of ISerializable
        //
 
        public virtual void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        { 
            throw new NotSupportedException(); 
        }
        // 
        // internal implementation details (FCALLS and utilities)
        //

        // V2 internal API. 
        internal unsafe static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, RuntimeMethodHandle method)
        { 
            // Validate the parameters. 
            if (type == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type"); 
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type");
            if (method.IsNullHandle())
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 

            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type");
 
            // Initialize the method...
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This is a new internal API added in Whidbey. Currently it's only
            // used by the dynamic method code to generate a wrapper delegate. 
            // Allow flexible binding options since the target method is
            // unambiguously provided to us. 
            // < 

            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(target, method, method.GetDeclaringType(), DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
            return d;
        }
 
        // Caution: this method is intended for deserialization only, no security checks are performed.
        internal static Delegate InternalCreateDelegate(Type type, Object firstArgument, MethodInfo method) 
        { 
            // Validate the parameters.
            if (type == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (method == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method");
            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type"); 
 
            // Initialize the method...
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle); 
            // This API is used by the formatters when deserializing a delegate.
            // They pass us the specific target method (that was already the
            // target in a valid delegate) so we should bind with the most
            // relaxed rules available (the result will never be ambiguous, it 
            // just increases the chance of success with minor (compatible)
            // signature changes). We explicitly skip security checks here -- 
            // we're not really constructing a delegate, we're cloning an 
            // existing instance which already passed its checks.
            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(firstArgument, method.MethodHandle, method.DeclaringType.TypeHandle, 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.SkipSecurityChecks |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
 
            return d;
        } 
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        private extern bool BindToMethodName(Object target, RuntimeTypeHandle methodType, String method, DelegateBindingFlags flags); 

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        private extern bool BindToMethodInfo(Object target, RuntimeMethodHandle method, RuntimeTypeHandle methodType, DelegateBindingFlags flags);
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern static MulticastDelegate InternalAlloc(RuntimeTypeHandle type); 
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern static MulticastDelegate InternalAllocLike(Delegate d); 

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern static bool InternalEqualTypes(object a, object b);
 
        // Used by the ctor. Do not call directly.
        // The name of this function will appear in managed stacktraces as delegate constructor. 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private extern void DelegateConstruct(Object target, IntPtr slot);
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern IntPtr GetMulticastInvoke();

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern IntPtr GetInvokeMethod();
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern RuntimeMethodHandle FindMethodHandle();
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern IntPtr GetUnmanagedCallSite();

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern IntPtr AdjustTarget(Object target, IntPtr methodPtr);
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern IntPtr GetCallStub(IntPtr methodPtr);
 
        internal virtual Object GetTarget()
        {
            return (_methodPtrAux.IsNull()) ? _target : null;
        } 

#if IA64 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern static bool CompareUnmanagedFunctionPtrs (Delegate d1, Delegate d2);
#endif 

    }

    // These flags effect the way BindToMethodInfo and BindToMethodName are allowed to bind a delegate to a target method. Their 
    // values must be kept in [....] with the definition in vm\comdelegate.h.
    internal enum DelegateBindingFlags 
    { 
        StaticMethodOnly    =   0x00000001, // Can only bind to static target methods
        InstanceMethodOnly  =   0x00000002, // Can only bind to instance (including virtual) methods 
        OpenDelegateOnly    =   0x00000004, // Only allow the creation of delegates open over the 1st argument
        ClosedDelegateOnly  =   0x00000008, // Only allow the creation of delegates closed over the 1st argument
        NeverCloseOverNull  =   0x00000010, // A null target will never been considered as a possible null 1st argument
        CaselessMatching    =   0x00000020, // Use case insensitive lookup for methods matched by name 
        SkipSecurityChecks  =   0x00000040, // Skip security checks (visibility, link demand etc.)
        RelaxedSignature    =   0x00000080, // Allow relaxed signature matching (co/contra variance) 
    } 
}

// File provided for Reference Use Only by Microsoft Corporation (c) 2007.
// ==++== 
//
//   Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
//
// ==--== 
namespace System {
 
    using System; 
    using System.Reflection;
    using System.Threading; 
    using System.Runtime.Serialization;
    using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
    using System.Runtime.CompilerServices;
    [Serializable()] 
    [ClassInterface(ClassInterfaceType.AutoDual)]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)] 
    public abstract class Delegate : ICloneable, ISerializable 
    {
        // _target is the object we will invoke on 
        internal Object _target;

        // MethodBase, either cached after first request or assigned from a DynamicMethod
        internal MethodBase _methodBase; 

        // _methodPtr is a pointer to the method we will invoke 
        // It could be a small thunk if this is a static or UM call 
        internal IntPtr _methodPtr;
 
        // In the case of a static method passed to a delegate, this field stores
        // whatever _methodPtr would have stored: and _methodPtr points to a
        // small thunk which removes the "this" pointer before going on
        // to _methodPtrAux. 
        internal IntPtr _methodPtrAux;
 
        // This constructor is called from the class generated by the 
        //  compiler generated code
        protected Delegate(Object target,String method) 
        {
            if (target == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target");
 
            if (method == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
 
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create closed
            // instance delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to 
            // such and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make
            // the choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards
            // compatibility. The name matching was case sensitive and we
            // preserve that as well. 
            if (!BindToMethodName(target, Type.GetTypeHandle(target), method,
                                  DelegateBindingFlags.InstanceMethodOnly | 
                                  DelegateBindingFlags.ClosedDelegateOnly)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
        } 

        // This constructor is called from a class to generate a
        // delegate based upon a static method name and the Type object
        // for the class defining the method. 
        protected unsafe Delegate(Type target,String method)
        { 
            if (target == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target");
 
            if (!(target is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "target");

            if (target.IsGenericType && target.ContainsGenericParameters) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_UnboundGenParam"), "target");
 
            if (method == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method");
 
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create open
            // static delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to such
            // and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make the
            // choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards compatibility. 
            // The name matching was case insensitive (no idea why this is
            // different from the constructor above) and we preserve that as 
            // well. 
            BindToMethodName(null, target.TypeHandle, method,
                             DelegateBindingFlags.StaticMethodOnly | 
                             DelegateBindingFlags.OpenDelegateOnly |
                             DelegateBindingFlags.CaselessMatching);
        }
 
        // Protect the default constructor so you can't build a delegate
        private Delegate() 
        { 
        }
 
        public Object DynamicInvoke(params Object[] args)
        {
            return DynamicInvokeImpl(args);
        } 

        protected virtual object DynamicInvokeImpl(object[] args) 
        { 
            RuntimeMethodHandle method = new RuntimeMethodHandle(GetInvokeMethod());
            RuntimeTypeHandle delegateType = Type.GetTypeHandle(this); 
            RuntimeMethodInfo invoke = (RuntimeMethodInfo)RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(delegateType, method);
            return invoke.Invoke(this, BindingFlags.Default, null, args, null, true);
        }
 

        public override bool Equals(Object obj) 
        { 
            if (obj == null || !InternalEqualTypes(this, obj))
                return false; 

            Delegate d = (Delegate) obj;

            // do an optimistic check first. This is hopefully cheap enough to be worth 
            if (_target == d._target && _methodPtr == d._methodPtr && _methodPtrAux == d._methodPtrAux)
                return true; 
 
            // even though the fields were not all equals the delegates may still match
            // When target carries the delegate itself the 2 targets (delegates) may be different instances 
            // but the delegates are logically the same
            // It may also happen that the method pointer was not jitted when creating one delegate and jitted in the other
            // if that's the case the delegates may still be equals but we need to make a more complicated check
 
            if (_methodPtrAux.IsNull())
            { 
                if (!d._methodPtrAux.IsNull()) 
                    return false; // different delegate kind
                // they are both closed over the first arg 
                if (_target != d._target)
                    return false;
                // fall through method handle check
            } 
            else
            { 
                if (d._methodPtrAux.IsNull()) 
                    return false; // different delegate kind
 
                // Ignore the target as it will be the delegate instance, though it may be a different one
                /*
                if (_methodPtr != d._methodPtr)
                    return false; 
                    */
 
                if (_methodPtrAux == d._methodPtrAux) 
                    return true;
                // fall through method handle check 
            }

            // method ptrs don't match, go down long path
            // 
            if (_methodBase == null || d._methodBase == null)
                return FindMethodHandle().Equals(d.FindMethodHandle()); 
            else 
                return _methodBase.Equals(d._methodBase);
 
        }

        public override int GetHashCode()
        { 
            //
            // this is not right in the face of a method being jitted in one delegate and not in another 
            // in that case the delegate is the same and Equals will return true but GetHashCode returns a 
            // different hashcode which is not true.
            /* 
            if (_methodPtrAux.IsNull())
                return unchecked((int)((long)this._methodPtr));
            else
                return unchecked((int)((long)this._methodPtrAux)); 
            */
            return GetType().GetHashCode(); 
        } 

        public static Delegate Combine(Delegate a, Delegate b) 
        {
            if ((Object)a == null) // cast to object for a more efficient test
                return b;
 
            return  a.CombineImpl(b);
        } 
 
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
        public static Delegate Combine(params Delegate[] delegates) 
        {
            if (delegates == null || delegates.Length == 0)
                return null;
 
            Delegate d = delegates[0];
            for (int i = 1; i < delegates.Length; i++) 
                d = Combine(d,delegates[i]); 

            return d; 
        }

        public virtual Delegate[] GetInvocationList()
        { 
            Delegate[] d = new Delegate[1];
            d[0] = this; 
            return d; 
        }
 
        // This routine will return the method
        public MethodInfo Method
        {
            get 
            {
                return GetMethodImpl(); 
            } 
        }
 
        protected virtual MethodInfo GetMethodImpl()
        {
            if (_methodBase == null)
            { 
                RuntimeMethodHandle method = FindMethodHandle();
                RuntimeTypeHandle declaringType = method.GetDeclaringType(); 
                // need a proper declaring type instance method on a generic type 
                if (declaringType.IsGenericTypeDefinition() || declaringType.HasInstantiation())
                { 
                    bool isStatic = (method.GetAttributes() & MethodAttributes.Static) != (MethodAttributes)0;
                    if (!isStatic)
                    {
                        if (_methodPtrAux == (IntPtr)0) 
                        {
                            // The target may be of a derived type that doesn't have visibility onto the 
                            // target method. We don't want to call RuntimeType.GetMethodBase below with that 
                            // or reflection can end up generating a MethodInfo where the ReflectedType cannot
                            // see the MethodInfo itself and that breaks an important invariant. But the 
                            // target type could include important generic type information we need in order
                            // to work out what the exact instantiation of the method's declaring type is. So
                            // we'll walk up the inheritance chain (which will yield exactly instantiated
                            // types at each step) until we find the declaring type. Since the declaring type 
                            // we get from the method is probably shared and those in the hierarchy we're
                            // walking won't be we compare using the generic type definition forms instead. 
                            Type currentType = _target.GetType(); 
                            Type targetType = declaringType.GetRuntimeType().GetGenericTypeDefinition();
                            while (true) 
                            {
                                if (currentType.IsGenericType &&
                                    currentType.GetGenericTypeDefinition() == targetType)
                                    break; 
                                currentType = currentType.BaseType;
                            } 
                            declaringType = currentType.TypeHandle; 
                        }
                        else 
                        {
                            // it's an open one, need to fetch the first arg of the instantiation
                            MethodInfo invoke = this.GetType().GetMethod("Invoke");
                            declaringType = invoke.GetParameters()[0].ParameterType.TypeHandle; 
                        }
                    } 
                } 
                _methodBase = (MethodInfo)RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(declaringType, method);
            } 
            return (MethodInfo)_methodBase;
        }

        public Object Target 
        {
            get 
            { 
                return GetTarget();
            } 
        }


        public static Delegate Remove(Delegate source, Delegate value) 
        {
            if (source == null) 
                return null; 

            if (value == null) 
                return source;

            if (!InternalEqualTypes(source, value))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTypeMis")); 

            return source.RemoveImpl(value); 
        } 

        public static Delegate RemoveAll(Delegate source, Delegate value) 
        {
            Delegate newDelegate = null;

            do 
            {
                newDelegate = source; 
                source = Remove(source, value); 
            }
            while (newDelegate != source); 

            return newDelegate;
        }
 
        protected virtual Delegate CombineImpl(Delegate d)
        { 
            throw new MulticastNotSupportedException(Environment.GetResourceString("Multicast_Combine")); 
        }
 
        protected virtual Delegate RemoveImpl(Delegate d)
        {
            return (d.Equals(this)) ? null : this;
        } 

 
        public virtual Object Clone() 
        {
            return MemberwiseClone(); 
        }

        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, String method) 
        {
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, false, true); 
        } 

        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, String method, bool ignoreCase)
        {
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, ignoreCase, true);
        } 

        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, String method, bool ignoreCase, bool throwOnBindFailure) 
        {
            if (type == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type");
            if (target == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target");
            if (method == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
            Type c = type.BaseType;
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type");

            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create closed 
            // instance delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to such
            // and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make the 
            // choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards compatibility. 
            // We never generate a closed over null delegate and this is
            // actually enforced via the check on target above, but we pass 
            // NeverCloseOverNull anyway just for clarity.
            if (!d.BindToMethodName(target, Type.GetTypeHandle(target), method,
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.InstanceMethodOnly |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.ClosedDelegateOnly | 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.NeverCloseOverNull |
                                    (ignoreCase ? DelegateBindingFlags.CaselessMatching : 0))) 
            { 
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth")); 
                d = null;
            }

            return d; 
        }
 
        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Type target, String method)
        { 
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, false, true);
        }

        // V1 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Type target, String method, bool ignoreCase)
        { 
            return CreateDelegate(type, target, method, ignoreCase, true); 
        }
 
        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Type target, String method, bool ignoreCase, bool throwOnBindFailure)
        {
            if (type == null) 
                    throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (!(type is RuntimeType)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type"); 
            if (target == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("target"); 
            if (!(target is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "target");
            if (target.IsGenericType && target.ContainsGenericParameters)
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_UnboundGenParam"), "target"); 
            if (method == null)
                    throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type"); 

            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create open
            // static delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodName to such 
            // and don't allow relaxed signature matching (which could make the
            // choice of target method ambiguous) for backwards compatibility. 
            if (!d.BindToMethodName(null, target.TypeHandle, method, 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.StaticMethodOnly |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.OpenDelegateOnly | 
                                    (ignoreCase ? DelegateBindingFlags.CaselessMatching : 0)))
            {
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth")); 
                d = null;
            } 
 
            return d;
        } 

        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, MethodInfo method)
        { 
            return CreateDelegate(type, method, true);
        } 
 
        // V1 API.
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, MethodInfo method, bool throwOnBindFailure) 
        {
            // Validate the parameters.
            if (type == null)
                    throw new ArgumentNullException("type"); 
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type"); 
            if (method == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method");
            if (!(method is RuntimeMethodInfo)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeMethodInfo"), "method");
            Type c = type.BaseType;
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type"); 

            // Initialize the delegate... 
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle); 
            // This API existed in v1/v1.1 and only expected to create closed
            // instance delegates. Constrain the call to BindToMethodInfo to 
            // open delegates only for backwards compatibility. But we'll allow
            // relaxed signature checking and open static delegates because
            // there's no ambiguity there (the caller would have to explicitly
            // pass us a static method or a method with a non-exact signature 
            // and the only change in behavior from v1.1 there is that we won't
            // fail the call). 
            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(null, method.MethodHandle, method.DeclaringType.TypeHandle, 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.OpenDelegateOnly |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature)) 
            {
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
                d = null; 
            }
            return d; 
        } 

        // V2 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object firstArgument, MethodInfo method)
        {
            return CreateDelegate(type, firstArgument, method, true);
        } 

        // V2 API. 
        public static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object firstArgument, MethodInfo method, bool throwOnBindFailure) 
        {
            // Validate the parameters. 
            if (type == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type"); 
            if (method == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 
            if (!(method is RuntimeMethodInfo)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeMethodInfo"), "method");
            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type");

            // Initialize the method... 
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This API is new in Whidbey and allows the full range of delegate 
            // flexability (open or closed delegates binding to static or 
            // instance methods with relaxed signature checking. The delegate
            // can also be closed over null. There's no ambiguity with all these 
            // options since the caller is providing us a specific MethodInfo.
            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(firstArgument, method.MethodHandle, method.DeclaringType.TypeHandle,
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature))
            { 
                if (throwOnBindFailure)
                    throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth")); 
                d = null; 
            }
            return d; 
        }

        public static bool operator ==(Delegate d1, Delegate d2)
        { 
            if ((Object)d1 == null)
                return (Object)d2 == null; 
 
            return d1.Equals(d2);
        } 

        public static bool operator != (Delegate d1, Delegate d2)
        {
            if ((Object)d1 == null) 
                return (Object)d2 != null;
 
            return !d1.Equals(d2); 
        }
 
        //
        // Implementation of ISerializable
        //
 
        public virtual void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        { 
            throw new NotSupportedException(); 
        }
        // 
        // internal implementation details (FCALLS and utilities)
        //

        // V2 internal API. 
        internal unsafe static Delegate CreateDelegate(Type type, Object target, RuntimeMethodHandle method)
        { 
            // Validate the parameters. 
            if (type == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type"); 
            if (!(type is RuntimeType))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Argument_MustBeRuntimeType"), "type");
            if (method.IsNullHandle())
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method"); 

            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type");
 
            // Initialize the method...
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle);
            // This is a new internal API added in Whidbey. Currently it's only
            // used by the dynamic method code to generate a wrapper delegate. 
            // Allow flexible binding options since the target method is
            // unambiguously provided to us. 
            // < 

            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(target, method, method.GetDeclaringType(), DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature)) 
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
            return d;
        }
 
        // Caution: this method is intended for deserialization only, no security checks are performed.
        internal static Delegate InternalCreateDelegate(Type type, Object firstArgument, MethodInfo method) 
        { 
            // Validate the parameters.
            if (type == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
            if (method == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("method");
            Type c = type.BaseType; 
            if (c == null || c != typeof(MulticastDelegate))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_MustBeDelegate"),"type"); 
 
            // Initialize the method...
            Delegate d = InternalAlloc(type.TypeHandle); 
            // This API is used by the formatters when deserializing a delegate.
            // They pass us the specific target method (that was already the
            // target in a valid delegate) so we should bind with the most
            // relaxed rules available (the result will never be ambiguous, it 
            // just increases the chance of success with minor (compatible)
            // signature changes). We explicitly skip security checks here -- 
            // we're not really constructing a delegate, we're cloning an 
            // existing instance which already passed its checks.
            if (!d.BindToMethodInfo(firstArgument, method.MethodHandle, method.DeclaringType.TypeHandle, 
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.SkipSecurityChecks |
                                    DelegateBindingFlags.RelaxedSignature))
                throw new ArgumentException(Environment.GetResourceString("Arg_DlgtTargMeth"));
 
            return d;
        } 
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        private extern bool BindToMethodName(Object target, RuntimeTypeHandle methodType, String method, DelegateBindingFlags flags); 

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        private extern bool BindToMethodInfo(Object target, RuntimeMethodHandle method, RuntimeTypeHandle methodType, DelegateBindingFlags flags);
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern static MulticastDelegate InternalAlloc(RuntimeTypeHandle type); 
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern static MulticastDelegate InternalAllocLike(Delegate d); 

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern static bool InternalEqualTypes(object a, object b);
 
        // Used by the ctor. Do not call directly.
        // The name of this function will appear in managed stacktraces as delegate constructor. 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private extern void DelegateConstruct(Object target, IntPtr slot);
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern IntPtr GetMulticastInvoke();

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern IntPtr GetInvokeMethod();
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern RuntimeMethodHandle FindMethodHandle();
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal extern IntPtr GetUnmanagedCallSite();

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern IntPtr AdjustTarget(Object target, IntPtr methodPtr);
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern IntPtr GetCallStub(IntPtr methodPtr);
 
        internal virtual Object GetTarget()
        {
            return (_methodPtrAux.IsNull()) ? _target : null;
        } 

#if IA64 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        internal extern static bool CompareUnmanagedFunctionPtrs (Delegate d1, Delegate d2);
#endif 

    }

    // These flags effect the way BindToMethodInfo and BindToMethodName are allowed to bind a delegate to a target method. Their 
    // values must be kept in [....] with the definition in vm\comdelegate.h.
    internal enum DelegateBindingFlags 
    { 
        StaticMethodOnly    =   0x00000001, // Can only bind to static target methods
        InstanceMethodOnly  =   0x00000002, // Can only bind to instance (including virtual) methods 
        OpenDelegateOnly    =   0x00000004, // Only allow the creation of delegates open over the 1st argument
        ClosedDelegateOnly  =   0x00000008, // Only allow the creation of delegates closed over the 1st argument
        NeverCloseOverNull  =   0x00000010, // A null target will never been considered as a possible null 1st argument
        CaselessMatching    =   0x00000020, // Use case insensitive lookup for methods matched by name 
        SkipSecurityChecks  =   0x00000040, // Skip security checks (visibility, link demand etc.)
        RelaxedSignature    =   0x00000080, // Allow relaxed signature matching (co/contra variance) 
    } 
}

// File provided for Reference Use Only by Microsoft Corporation (c) 2007.
                        

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